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A C D F G H I K L M O P R S T V W
Hertz - Hertz is often referred to as "cycles per second". In the United States, the frequency or directional change of alternating current is usually 60 hertz.
High Frequency - Covers the entire frequency spectrum above 50,000 Hz. Used in TIG welding for arc ignition and stabilization.
Hot Start - Used on some Stick (SMAW) machines to make it easier to start difficult-to-start electrodes. Used for arc starting only.
Inverter - Power source which increases the frequency of the incoming primary power, thus providing for a smaller size machine and improved electrical characteristics for welding, such as faster response time and more control for pulse welding.
KVA - Kilovolt-amperes. The total volts times amps divided by 1,000, demanded by a welding power source from the primary power furnished by the utility company.
KW - Kilowatts. Primary KW is the actual power used by the power source when it is producing its rated output. Secondary KW is the actual power output of the welding power source. Kilowatts are found by taking volts times amps divided by 1,000 and taking into account any power factor.
Lift-Arc - This feature allows TIG arc starting without high frequency. Starts the arc at any amperage without contaminating the weld with tungsten.
Microprocessor - One or more integrated circuits that can be programmed with stored instructions to perform a variety of functions.
MIG (GMAW or Gas Metal Arc Welding) - An arc welding process which joins metals by heating them with an arc. The arc is between a continuously fed filler metal (consumable) electrode and the workpiece. Externally supplied gas or gas mixtures provide shielding. Common MIG welding is also referred to as short circuit transfer. Metal is deposited only when the wire actually touches the work. No metal is transferred across the arc. Another method of MIG welding, spray transfer moves a stream of tiny molten droplets across the arc from the electrode to the weld puddle. Consumables: contact tips, shielding gas, welding wire.
Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV) - As the name implies, no current is flowing in the circuit because the circuit is open. The voltage is impressed upon the circuit, however, so that when the circuit is completed, the current will flow immediately. For example, a welding machine that is turned on but not being used for welding at the moment will have an open-circuit voltage applied to the cables attached to the output terminals of the welding machine.
Plasma Arc Cutting - An arc cutting process which severs metal by using a constricted arc to melt a small area of the work. This process can cut all metals that conduct electricity. Miller Spectrum cutters are complete packages that contain all required equipment and torch consumables. Consumables: torch consumables, gas or compressed air supply.
Pounds Per Square Inch (psi) - A measurement equal to a mass or weight applied to one square inch of surface area.
Power Efficiency - How well an electrical machine uses the incoming electrical power.
Power Factor Correction - Normally used on single-phase, constant current power sources, to reduce the amount of primary amperage demanded from the power company while welding.
Primary Power - Often referred to as the input line voltage and amperage available to the welding machine from the shop's main power line. Often expressed in watts or kilowatts (KW), primary input power is AC and may be single-phase or three-phase. Welding machines with the capability of accepting more than one primary input voltage and amperage must be properly connected for the incoming primary power being used.
Pulsed MIG (MIG-P) - A modified spray transfer process that produces no spatter because the wire does not touch the weld puddle. Applications best suited for pulsed MIG are those currently using the short circuit transfer method for welding steel, 14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up. Consumables: contact tips, shielding gas, welding wire.
Pulsed TIG (TIG-P) - A modified TIG process appropriate for welding thinner materials. Consumables: tungsten electrode, filler material, shielding gas.
Pulsing - Sequencing and controlling the amount of current, the polarity, and the duration of the welding arc.
Rated Load - The amperage and voltage the power source is designed to produce for a given specific duty cycle period. For example, 300 amps, 32 load volts, at 60% duty cycle.
Resistance Spot Welding(RSW) - A process in which two pieces of metal are joined by passing current between electrodes positioned on opposite sides of the pieces to be welded. There is no arc with this process, and it is the resistance of the metal to the current flow that causes the fusion. Spot welding requires the following equipment: air- or water-cooled spot welder, set of 2 tongs and set of 2 tips. Consumables are not required to spot weld.
RMS - Root Mean Square. The "effective" values of measured AC voltage or amperage. RMS equals 0.707 times the maximum, or peak value.
content provided by Hobart Institute Of Welding Technology